انواع قراردادهای بین‌المللی و کاربرد آنها در دنیای تجارت

International trade agreements are highly diverse, and with the development of international relations, new types have been added to the list of such agreements over time. But what are the most widely used international trade agreements?

Franchise Agreement Contract

A franchise is a title that gives a company the authority to sell another company’s products or products and receive a fee for it. In practice, franchising is exactly a business strategy to attract and retain customers, no more and no less. A marketing system that aims to create an image of a company’s products or services in the mind of the customer, is in fact a way to define products or services to meet customer needs. This contract has different types in terms of nature: production franchise contract, distribution franchise contract, service franchise contract.

In a franchise agreement, either the representation of one party owns the business, or in other words, it owns the brand or the economic system, and allows the other party to use its brand and economic system.

International contract for the carriage of Goods

International transportation of goods is the movement and transportation of goods from one place within a country to another place within another country in accordance with the laws and regulations governing it. The international movement of goods is based on a contract called the International Carriage of Goods. International methods of transportation of goods are divided into 6 categories. Air transport, sea transport, road transport, rail transport, pipeline transport, combined transport, which is a combination of the above methods.

In an international freight contract, items such as the specifications of the parties to the contract, the subject of the contract, which is the shipment of goods with its specifications, obligations of the carrier, obligations of the owner of the goods, determining the shipment schedule including schedule, shipping route and payment method Insurance and its amount, force majeure and how to resolve the dispute must be considered.

Finance Contracts

Financing contract is one of the common methods of financing for the implementation of plans and projects, during which it is possible to use internal resources or receive and use foreign currency loans. From a legal point of view, a financing agreement is the use of credit lines to obtain loans from international financial institutions. In fact, a finance contract can be considered as a mechanism in which a contract is concluded between the country or the invested company and the country or the investing company, which has a plan or project with specialized manpower, technology transfer, machinery and equipment, raw materials and necessary foreign exchange capacity. And when the plan or project is put into operation, based on the amount of investment and interest belonging to that country, the investee undertakes to provide the total cost of the plan or project to the investing country in installments.

Today, due to the high cost of infrastructure projects, financing and the use of foreign facilities through the “Finance” contract, can play a key role in the economic development of developing countries, including Iran.

 Buy Back Agreement

Reciprocal purchase agreements, also known in Iranian law as repurchase agreements in the field of energy and oil and gas activities, are considered service purchase agreements. This means that in these types of contracts, which are often long-term (usually from a minimum of 3 years to a maximum of 20 years), a foreign investment company, as the main contractor, assumes the costs of investing and equipping a particular project for the other party. By transferring the required capital, equipment, machinery and technology to the other party to the contract, it begins the construction, development or renovation and operation of the agreed project. In fact, reciprocal sale agreements can greatly guarantee the attraction of foreign capital, as well as the transfer of advanced and up-to-date technology and equipment to the country, and finally, as soon as the contract expires, all rights and ownership of the project equipment and products in Took over and in fact took full ownership of the project.

These types of contracts are now very common at the international level, especially in developing countries with low economic power and limited trade capacity, with the aim of expanding their exports by upgrading their trade and investment technologies. They try to conclude the mentioned contracts with capable and developed foreign countries and companies in various fields.

Joint Venture Contract

A joint venture contract, which is one of the most widely used types of international contracts in the field of trade, is a kind of partnership and cooperation contract. These contracts are a form of business cooperation in which the parties to the contract jointly undertake a specific activity and, by actively intervening in the matter, share in the profits and losses. This type of contract has different types that vary depending on the type of partnership. Individuals enter into a joint venture contract with the aim of increasing capital strength, reducing risk and strengthening market competitiveness in order to participate in a specific investment.

A joint venture, also known as a joint venture or for-profit partnership, means the formation of a joint venture by two or more companies in order to achieve specific business, financial, or technical goals. The important point in joint venture contracts is that the parties use their cash and non-cash items under joint management and in accordance with the agreement and share in the profits and losses resulting from it.

Licensing Agreement

Bachelor’s degree contracts in the international trade market are generally known as licensing agreements, intellectual property rights agreements, or exploitation license agreements. This contract is one of the most important types of international contracts in this field and it is a contract in which one party reserves the right to exploit, use and use all or part of its intangible assets for a certain period of time and in a specific geographical area or market. The other side gives up. The most important examples of bachelor’s degree contracts are bachelor’s degree in invention, bachelor’s degree in trademark, and bachelor’s degree in technical knowledge.

If a contract is concluded as a license agreement and the goods themselves are provided to the party to the contract, that contract is not a license, but a sale contract.

Distribution Agreement

International distribution agreements are among the most fundamental treaties in the field of international trade. The parties to this contract are suppliers and distributors. The supplier may be just the exporter or the manufacturer himself. The distributor also benefits by buying products from the supplier and reselling them to others. For example, a supplier in a country wants to give a company the exclusive right to distribute its product in Iran. By concluding a distribution agreement, they set an initial framework that sets out the future plans of the two parties over a period of time.

The result of an international distribution agreement is merely the permission and privilege of the exclusive distribution of services or technology, and ownership remains with the creator.

International trade agreements

International trade agreements are the main platform for trade agreements and agreements of traders, traders and trading companies in economic exchanges. Sales contracts include a wide range of contract models depending on the subject of the contract, its parties, duration and continuity, and the law governing it. For this reason, due to the importance of the issue, diversity and multiplicity of international contracts for the purchase and sale of goods, this requires legal knowledge and management of sales contracts. Also, monitoring the fulfillment of contractual obligations and legal obligations of the parties, as well as the time of extension and expiration of the validity of the contract is essential to prevent challenges and problems of this type of contract.

International trade in goods includes transactions that have at least one of the international elements of nationality, domicile, border and transport of goods, and on the other hand, basically goods, whether in the form of raw materials or finished goods. And the like can be the subject of an international contract for the purchase and sale of goods.

International sale of goods Contract

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